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HARVARD UNIVERSITY

Library of the

Museum of

Comparative Zoology

BREVIORA

MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY

AT

HARVABD COLLEGE, IN CAMBRIDGE

Numbers 67-120 1957-1960

CAMBRIDGE, MASS., U.S.A.

1960

Edited By

Nelda E. Wright

V.^

.\

CONTENTS

BREVIORA

^Museum of Comparative Zoology

Numbers 67-120

1957

No. 67. Notes on Certain Species of Tetragnatha (Araneae, Ar- giopidae) in Central America and Mexico. By Arthur ]\[. Chickering. 4 pp. January 31.

No. 68. The Genus Tetragnatha (Araneae, Argiopidae) in Ja- maica, B.W.I., and other Neighboring Islands. By Arthur M. Chickering. 15 pp. January 31.

No. 69. A New Zodariid Spider from Panama. By Arthur M. Chickering. 7 \)\). January 31.

No. 70. "Anguimorph" Tooth Replacement in Amphishaena alha Linnaeus, 1758, and A. fuliginosa Linnaeus, 1758 (Reptilia : Ampliisbaenidae). By Carl Gans. 12 pp. January 31.

No. 71. Taxonomic Notes on the New World Forms of Troglo- dytes. By Raymond A. Paynter. Jr. 15 pp. March 29.

No. 72. Is the Ant Genus Tetramorium Native in North Amer- ica? By W. L. Brown, Jr. 8 pp. March 29.

No. 73. Additions to the Mammalian Fauna of Peru and Notes on Some Other Peruvian Mammals. By Oliver P. Pearson. 7 pp. March 29.

No. 74. The Discovery of Cerapachyine Ants on New Caledonia, with the Description of New Species of Phyracace.s and Sphinctomyrmex. By E. 0. Wilson. 9 pp. May 1.

No. 75. Oil a New Oetochaetine Earthworm Supposedly from Guatemala. By G. E. Gates. 8 pp. May 1.

No. 7(). Two New Land and Freshwater Mollusks from New Guinea. By William J. Clench. 4 pp. June 18.

No. 77. Dacetinopa, A New Ant Genus from New Guinea. By W. L. Brown, Jr. and E. 0. Wilson. 7 pp. June 21.

No. 78. The Larva of the Ant Genus Dacetinops Brown and Wilson. By George C. Wheeler and Jeanette Wheel- er. 4 pp. Jvme 21.

No. 79. Dasypeltis nicdici lamiiensis, A New Race of Egg-Eating Snake (Ophidia, Reptilia) from Coastal East Africa. Bj'- Carl Gans. 13 pp. August 9.

No. 80. A Collection of Drawings of Fishes Ascribed to J. P. Kirtland (1793-1877), in the Library of Bowdoin College. By James M. Moulton. 4 pp., 2 pis. Sep-^ tember 30.

No. 81. Contributions to a Revision of the Earthworm Family Lumbricidae. I. Allolobophora limicola. By G. E. Gates. 14 pp. September 30.

1958

No. 82. The Trunk ^lusculature of Sanzina and its Beai-ing on Certain Aspects of the ]\Iyological Evolution of Snakes. By Walter Auffenberg. 12 pp. January 31.

Xo. 83. Thamnophis hovaUii Dunn Rediscovered (Reptilia, Ser- })entes). By Benjamin Shreve and Carl Gans. 8 pp. January 29.

No. 84. Rediscovery of the Australian Chelid Genus Pseudemy- dura Siebeurock (Chelidae, Testudines). By Ernest E. Williams. 8 pp., 4 pis. January 30.

No. 85. The Choanal Papillae of the Cheloniidae. By Thomas S. Parsons. 5 pp., 2 pis. January 31.

No. 86. A New Sicistine Rodent from the ^Miocene of Wyoming. By Craig C. Black. 7 pp. May 29.

No. 87. An Enibolonioro J aw from the JMid-Carboniferoiis of Nova Scotia. By Alfred Sherwood Romer. 7 pp., 1 pi. June 20.

No. 88. A New Species of the Genus iirotheca (Serpentes: Colu- bridae) from Venezuela. B}' J. A. Roze. 5 pp. June 30.

No. 89. Remarks on Some Forms of Cinclus (Aves). By James C. Greenway. Jr. and Charles Vaurie. 10 pp. July 15.

No. 90. A Fossil X'ampire Bat from Cuba. By Karl F. Koop- man. 4 pp., 1 pi. July 30.

No. 91. Contribution to a Revision of the Earthworm Family Lumbricidae. II. Indian Species. By G. E. Gates. 16 pp. August 13.

No. 92. A New Genus of Erethizontid Rodents from the Col- huehuapian of Patagonia. By Bryan Patterson. 4 pp. September 17.

No. 93. A New Barylambdid Pantodont from the Late Paleo- cene. Bj^ Bryan Patterson and Elwyn L. Simons. 8 pp. September 18.

No. 94. Affinities of the Patagonian Fossil Mammal Necrolestes. By Bryan Patterson. 14 pp. September 18.

No. 95. A New Bolivian Land Snail of the Genus Dryniaeus. By Juan Jose Parodiz. 3 pp. September 19.

No. 9(j. A New Dichobunid Artiodactyl from the Uinta Eocene. By C. Lewis Gazin. (i pp. September 19.

No. 97. Fusion of Cervical Vertebrae in the Erethizontidae and Dinomyidae. By Clayton E. Ray. 11 pp., 2 pis. October 27.

No. 98. Two New Species of Bathylagus from the Western North Atlantic with Notes on Other Species. By Daniel M. Cohen. 9 pp. December 12.

No. 99. A New Subspecies of Chamadeo jacksoni Boulenger and a Key to the Species of Three-llorned Chamaeleons. By A. Stanley Rand. 8 pp. December 19.

No. TOO. On the Pineal Organ of the Tuna, Thijnnus thynnus L. By Uno Hohngren. 5 pp., 2 pis. December 23.

1959

No. 101. Cervical Ribs in Turtles. By Ernest E. Williams. 12 pp., 1 pi. March 2.

No. 102. A New Jamaican Galliwasp (Sauria, Anguidae). By Garth Underwood. 13 pp. April 9.

No. 108. Two New Species of Eleutheroductyius from Puerto Rico. By Juan A. Rivero. 6 pp., 1 pi. April 10.

No. 104. Studies on Fishes of the Family Ophidiidae. III. A New Species of Lepophidium from Barbados. By C. Richard Robins. 7 pp. April 13.

No. 105. Bufo (jmidlachi, A New Species of Cuban Toad. By Rodolfo Ruibal. 14 pp. April 14.

No. 106. The Occipito-Vertebral Joint in the Burrowing Snakes of the Family Uropeltidae. By Ernest E. Williams. 10 pp. April 28.

No. 107. A Revision of the Dacetine Ant Genus Neostruma. By William L. Brown, Jr. 13 pp. May 6.

No. 108. Some New Species of Dacetine Ants. By William L. Brown, Jr. 11 pp. May 7.

No. 109. On the Pineal Area and Adjacent Structures of the Brain of the Dipnoan Fish, Protopterus annectens (Owen). By Uno Holmgren. 7 pp., 2 pis. May 8.

No. 110. The Spider Genus Coleosoma (Araneae, Theridiidae). By Herbert W. Levi. 8 pp.. 1 pi. June 16.

No. 111. On the Caudal Neurosecretory System of the Teleost Fish, Fundulus heterodiUis L. By Uno Holmgren. 13 pp., 2 pis. June 17.

No. 112. A Mounted Skeleton of the Giant Plesiosaur Kronosau- rus. By Alfred Sherwood Romer and Arnold D. Lewis. 14 i^p.. 1 pi. October 15.

No. 113. A New Phyllomedusa from Bolivia (Salientia, Hyli- dae). By Benjamin Shreve. I^ pp., 1 })1. November 2.

No. 114. Anomalophis bolccnsis (Massalonj^o), A New Genus of Fossil Snake from the Italian Eocene. By Walter Auffenberji'. 16 pp. November 23.

No. 115. The Lemon-Colored Plexaurids from the West Indies and Brazil. By Elisabeth Deiehmann and P. M. Bayer. 12 pp., 5 pis. Noveml)er 25.

1960

No. 116. Insectivores of the Middle Miocene Split Rock Local Fanna, Wyoming-. By Katherine Milmine Reed. 11 pp., 2 pis. January 6.

Xo. 117. Notes on Hispaniolan Herpetology. 1. Anolis christo- phci. New Species, from the Citadel of King Christo- phe, Haiti. By Ernest E. Williams. 7 pp. January 20.

No. 118. A Survey of the Leptodactylid Frogs, Genus Eupso- phus, in Chile. By Jose M. Cei. 13 pp. February 24.

No. 119. Arctic Archibenthal and Abyssal Mollusks from Drift- ing Station Alpha. By Arthur H. Clarke, Jr. 17 pp., 1 pi. March 8.

No. 120. Two Species of Tortoises in Northern South America. By Ernest E. Williams. 13 pp., 3 pis. March 9.

INDEX OF AUTHORS BREVIORA

MUSEUM OP COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY

Numbers 67-120

1957-60

No.

AUFFENBERG WALTER 82, 114

Bayer, F. M. and Elisabeth Deichmann 115

Black, Craig C 86

Brown, William L., Jk 72, 107, 108

Brown, William L., Jr. and E. 0. Wilson 77

Cei, Jose M 118

Chickering, Arthur M 67, 68, 69

Clarke, Arthur H., Jr 119

Clench, William J 76

Cohen, Daniel M 98

Deichmann, Elisabeth and F. M. Bayer 115

Gans, Carl 70, 79

Gans, Carl and Benjamin Shreve 83

Gates, G. E 75, 81, 91

Gazin, C. Lewis 96

Greenway, James C, Jr. and Charles Vaurie 89

Holmgren, Uno 100, 109, 111

KooPMAN, Karl F 90

Levi, Herbert W 110

Lewis, Arnold D. and Alfred Sherwood Romp:r 112

MouLTON, James M. 80

Parodiz, Juan Jose 95

Parsons, Thomas S 85

Patterson, Bryan 92, 94

Patterson, Bryan and Elwyn L. Simons 93

Paynter, Raymond A.. Jr 71

Pearson, Oliver P 73

Rand, A. Stanley 99

Ray, Clayton E 97

Reed, Katherine Milmine 116

RivERO, Juan A. 103

Robins, C. Richard 104

RoMER, Alfred Sherwood 87

RoMER, Alfred Sherwood and Arnold D. Lewis 112

Roze, J. a 88

RuiBAL, Rodolfo 105

Shreve, Benjamin 113

Shreve, Benjamin and Carl Cans 83

Simons, Elwyn L. and Bryan Patterson 93

Underwood, Garth 102

Vauree, Charles and James C. Green way, Jr 89

Wheeler, George C. and Jeanette Wheeler 78

Wheeler, Jeanette and George C. Wheeler 78

Williams, Ernest E. 84, 101, 106, 117, 120

Wilson, E. 0 74

Wilson, E. 0. and William L. Brown, Jr 77

BREVIORA

Moseiiim of Comparative Zoology

Cambridge, Mass. Januiiry 31, 1957 Number 67

NOTES ON CERTAIN SPECIES OP TETRAGNATHA (ARANEAE, ARGIOPIDAE) IN CENTRAL AMERICA

AND MEXICO

By Arthur M. Chickering

Albion CollpRp, Albion. Michigan

In connection with my study of the ^enns Tefrngnafha Latreille, 1804 in Panama and the West Indies I have also had occasion to examine a number of species from parts of Central America north of Panama, and also from Mexico, types of which are in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College. The following notes are offered as a contribution to the further clarification of the genus.

Tetragnatha versicolor Walckenaer, 1841

T. convexa Banks, 1898

T. convexa Petrunkevitch, 1911

T. convexa Eoewer, 1942

A vial labelled T. convexa Banks and marked "cotypes" now contains one male and three females all from San Jose del Cabo, Baja California. The chelicerae, palp, and other characters make it certain that the male belongs to T. versicolor Walckenaer. The females are always more difficult to place with accuracy but I feel certain that these belong in the same species with the male. There is another male in the collection from Sierra Laguna, Baja California, originally identified as a T. convexa Banks l)ut this- is also clearly a T. versicolor Walckenaer.

Tetragnatha guatemalensis 0. P. Cambridge, 1889

T. fraterna Banks, 1898

T. mnndihulata Banks, 1898

BREVIORA

NO. 67

T. fraterna Petrunkevitch, 1911 T. fraterna Eoewer, 1942

The characteristics of the male palp and the male chelicerae definiteh" identify the males collected at San Jose del Cabo, Baja California and described as T. fraterna, and I feel confident that we may be certain of the correct placement of the females as well. Banks identified both sexes collected at Tepic and San Jose del Cabo as specimens of T. mnndihiilata Walckenaer, 1841, known at present only from Ceylon, India, Australia, and Poly- nesia. Re-examination of these shows clearly that they belong to T. guatemalensis 0. P. Cambridge.

Tetragnatha tristani Banks, 1909 (Figures 1-5) There is only a single specimen to represent this species so far as I have been able to determine. This is the holotype very briefly described by its author. I have carefully searched through my collections of Tetragnatha from the regions of Panama closely contiguous to Costa Rica, from which country the original was collected, without discovering any additional specimens. I have also compared the holotype with all other species known to me, with the result that I am compelled to regard it as a valid species.

^ 'y /

e

D kA

i * '

*■«

External Anatomy of Tetragnatha tristani Banks Figures 1, 2. Cheliceral teeth along the fang groove; promarginal nnd

retromarginal teeth, respectively.

Figures 3, 4. Distal ends of cymbiiun, embolus, and eonduetor from two

different views.

Figure .t. Paracymbium.

1957 TETRAGNATHA FROM CENTRAL AMERICA 6

Since the orig:inal description was so brief I have thoup:ht it desirable to furnish a detailed treatment in accord with my usual procedure.

Male holofypc. Total leng-th includinor the chelicerae 4.55 mm. ; exclusive of the chelicerae 4.16 mm. Carapace 1.495 mm. long, .97 mm. wide opposite second coxae where it is widest ; other features as usual in the genus.

Eyes. Eight in two rows as usual in the genus; viewed from above, both rows moderately recurved ; viewed from in front, both rows slightly procurved, both measured by centers. Central ocular quadrangle wider behind than in front in ratio of about 14 : 11, slightly wider behind than long. Ratio of eyes AME : ALE : PME : PLE = 7 : 5.5 : 8 : 6.5. AME separated from one another by 1.5 times their diameter, from ALE by a little more than twice their diameter. PME separated from one another by 1.7 times their diameter, from PLE by slightly more than this distance. Laterals separated from one another by the diameter of PLE; AME separated from PME by nearly 1.5 times as far. Height of clypeus equal to a little more than the diameter of AME.

Chelicerae. Moderately well developed, porrect and divergent; basal segment .78 mm. long and, therefore, about half as long as the carapace ; the prolateral spur is simple, rather poorly devel- oped, and not distally bifid ; the fang is moderately sinuous and distinctly bent posteriorly in distal half; the promargin of the fang groove has seven teeth but the last three are minute den- ticles and would probably be subject to much variation in a large population; the retromargin also has seven teeth with the last two very small (Pigs. 1-2).

Maxillae. Nearly parallel ; somewhat concave along outer border ; about three times as long as wide at narrowest level.

Lip. Wider at base than long in ratio of about 15 : 11 ; less than one-half as long as maxillae ; sternal suture gently pro- curved ; sternal tubercles well developed and robust at ends of sternal suture.

Sternum. As usual in the genus ; with fourth coxae separated by about one-half their width.

Legs. 1243. Width of first patella at "knee" .162 mm., tibial index of first leg 4. Width of fourth patella at "knee" .152 mm., tibial index of fourth leg 7.

BREVIORA NTO . 67

Femora Patellae Tibiae Metatarsi Tarsi Totals

(All measurements in millimeters) 2.990 MO 3.250 .3.380 .975 11.245

2.

2.080

.552

1.755

1.885

.700

6.972

3.

1.105

.390

.617

.845

.325

3.282

4.

2.210

.390

1.625

1.950

.520

6.695

Palp

.660

.154

.176

.970

1.960

All le^s with moderately coarse spines and the normal eoatinp: of hair.

Palp. Both tibia and patella are short with the former only slightly longer than the latter; the paracymbium is very trans- parent but appears to have the shape shown in Figure 5; the cyrabium is long and slender; the conductor and embolus are also long, slender, and gently curved (Figs. 3-4).

Abdomen. Not prolonged posterior to spinnerets; only slightly swollen in anterior half; slightly notched dorsally at base; 2.73 mm. long; .95 mm. wide about one-third of its length from liase where it is widest.

Color in alcohol. Color apparently well preserved. Legs, mouth parts and cephalothorax with various shades of yellowish to light reddish brown. Abdomen with a well defined folium and many closely placed yellowish white silvery spangles on dorsum and along lateral sides. Venter plain yellowish.

There is only one specimen known at present and that was col- lected by Prof. J. Fid. Tristan of San Jose, Costa Rica, in his home city with no date recorded.

REFERENCES

Banks, Nathan

1898. Arachnida from Baja California and other parts of Mexico. Proc. California Acad. Sei., Ser. 3, Zoology. 1, (7): 205-309, 5 pis.

1909. Arachnida from Costa Rica. I'roc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, April, 1909: 194-234, 2 pis.

BREVIORA

Mmseiuiirii of Compsirative Zoology

Cambridge, Mass. January 31, 1957 Number 68

THE GENUS TETRAGNATHA (ARANEAE,

ARGIOPIDAE) IN JAMAICA, B.W.I., AND

OTHER NEIGHBORING ISLANDS

Arthur M. Chickering

Albion College, Albion, Michigan

For several years before her death in 1953 Miss Elizabeth B. Bryant, Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, had been engaged in a comprehensive study of a collection of spiders from Jamaica, B. W. I. This collection had come from several sources but it had been assembled largely through the interest of Mr. C. Bernard Lewis, Director and Curator, Sci- ence Museum, Institute of Jamaica, Kingston, Jamaica. After Miss Bryant's death this collection was placed in my possession for continued study. On my way to Panama in June, 1954, I was able to stop in Jamaica for a reconnaissance of the island preparatory to what may be a more or less extensive study of the spiders of that country.

As an extension of my study of the genus Tetragnatha Latreille, 1804 in Panama, I have been much interested in examining the genus in Jamaica and in comparing the species found there with the tetragnathids in several of the larger islands of that general region. This paper is a result of that study, and types of the new species named here are deposited in the Mu- seum of Comparative Zoology.

It is again a pleasure to acknowledge my indebtedness to the following persons for their continued encouragement in the pur- suit of my studies : Dr. A. S. Romer and Dr. P. J. Darlington, Jr., Director, and Curator of Insects, respectively, in the Mu- seum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, and Miss Nelda E. Wright, Editor of Publications in the same institu- tion. Without the privileges which have been extended to me

2 BREVIORA NO. 68

for many years in this museum the continued progress of my studies would have been much more difficult.

Genus TetraGNATHA Latreille, 1804

The genus has been well defined by Seeley (1928) and is, in general, well understood by araneologists. There are, however, certain characteristics of the genus which have in the past made it difficult to identify the species correctly and numerous errors must eventually be eliminated. It is also my opinion that suffi- cient attention has not usually been given to the question of varia- tion within species in respect to several of the most important structural features used by taxonomists for identification. F. P. Cambridge (1897-1905) emphasized the value of the character- istics of the male palp such as the form of the paracymbium, shape and course of the conductor and embolus as well as the features of the eyes, chelicerae, and legs. Petrunkevitch (1930) and Wiehle (1939) were the first to appreciate the value of the genital area, which lacks an epigynum, in identifying females which are often exceedingly difficult to place with certainty. Color has been shown to be extremely variable and nearly worth- less as a means of identification. Cheliceral teeth are often quite variable in number, degree of development, and relative posi- tion. Size, when mature, is also subject to great variation in sev- eral species. I have tried to take account of all of these salient features in making my determinations.

THE GENTJS IN JAMAICA

Only the bibliographical references considered essential are given in this paper. Extensive bibliographies may be found in several sources.

Tetragnatha antillana Simon, 1897

T. antillana Petrunkevitch, 1930

T. antillana Bryant, 1940

T. antillana Bryant, 1942

T. festina Bryant, 1945 (male only)

T. haitiensis Bryant, 1945

1956 TETRAGNATHA IN JAMAICA 3

This species appears to be common in Jamaica. It was found abundant at Mavis Bank over water by R. P. Bengry. Collection records: One male from the Blue Mts., southwest side of Main Range, between 3000-4000 ft. elevation, August, 1934 (P. J. Dar- lington, Jr.) ; both sexes from Mavis Bank, over water, March, 1953 (R. P. Bengry) ; one female from Rio Cobre, June, 1954,

Tetragnatha caudata Emebton, 1884

Eucta caudata Petrunkeviteh, 1911 T. caudata Seeley, 1928 T. caudata Bryant, 1940

Miss Bryant had a single female from Cuba. The species ap- pears but once in the collection from Jamaica placed at my dis- posal ; Papine, five miles north of Kingston, April, 1937.

Tetragnatha exigua sp. nov. (Figures 1-5)

Male holotijpe. Total length including chelicerae 2.795 mm., without chelicerae 2.34 mm. Carapace 1.04 mm. long; .67 mm. wide opposite second coxae where it is widest ; with the usual gen- eral form of the genus ; .209 mm. tall at about the middle ; nearly level from PE to posterior declivity; median depression very shallow, opposite interval between second and third coxae.

Eyes. Eight in two rows as usual; lateral ocular tubercles rather prominent ; viewed from above, both rows moderately re- curved ; viewed from in front, anterior row slightly recurved and posterior row slightly procurved, both measured by centers ; cen- tral ocular quadrangle wider behind than in front in ratio of about 4 : 3, wider behind than long in about the same ratio. Ratio of eyes AME : ALE : PME : PLE = 5.5 : 4 : 5 : 4. AME separated from one another by about 1.2 times their diameter, from ALE by about the same distance. PME sep- arated from one another by a little less than twice their diam- eter, from PLE by about two thirds as far. Laterals separated from one another by about 1.25 times their diameter. AME sep- arated from PME by a little more than the diameter of AME, hence further from one another than laterals are from one another in ratio of about 6 : 5. Height of clypeus equal to nearly 1.5 times the diameter of AME.

BREVIORA

NO. 68

Chelicerae. Well developed, moderately porrect, quite diver- gent in distal two thirds, somewhat swollen in middle ; prolateral spur a simple spine not bifid distally; fang- slender, slightly sinuate, with a blunt tubercle on inner margin about one-fifth of its length from base ; promargin of fang groove with four teeth, retromargin with four smaller teeth; with no "large tooth" on the promargin (Fig. 1).

Maxillae. Nearly parallel ; slightly concave in middle of lateral border ; somewhat more than twice as long as lip ; three times as long as wide in middle.

r

n

External Anatomy of Tetragnatha exigua sp. nov.

Fig. 1. Chelicerae of male from in front.

Fig. 2. Paracymbium of male palp.

Fig. 3. Distal end of cymbium, conductor, and embolus.

Fig. 4. Cheliceral teeth of female.

Fig. 5. Genital fold of female.

Liip. Much widened in basal third where it is wider than long in ratio of 22 : 14; sternal suture only slightly procurved; with the usual sternal tubercles well developed at ends of sternal suture.

Sternum. Quite convex ; surface finely pitted and granulated ; with the usual form ; continued laterally and posteriorly between all coxae ; only a little longer than wide ; posterior coxae sepa-

1956 TETRAGNATHA IN JAMAICA 5

rated by a little more than their width.

Legs. 1243. Width of first patella at "knee" .1083 mm., tibial index of first leg 4. Width of fourth patella at "knee" .0758 ram., tibial index of fourth leg 5.

Femora Patellae Tibiae Metatarsi Tarsi Totals

(All measurements in millimeters)

1. 2.275 .390 2.275 1.755 .718 7.413

2. 1.625 .325 1.430 1.380 .580 5.340

3. .910 .198 .445 .550 .308 2.411

4. 1.430 .260 1.170 1.235 .455 4.550 Palp .440 .120 .176 .396 1.132

Spines. True spines appear to be entirely lacking in this species (a very unusual feature) ; hair and bristles are sparsely present. Trichobotliria are present but have not been accurately observed.

Palp. Both tibia and patella are short with tibia longer than patella in ratio of about 3 : 2. The paracymbium is unusually broad. The conductor and embolus are shaped and related essen- tially as shown in Figures 2 and 3.

Abdomen. Slender ; broadest near base and gradually tapered to a blunt point posteriorly; bluntly truncated at base which is not notched; 1.495 mm. long; longer than wide in ratio of about 23 : 9 ; not continued posterior to spinnerets. Other features as usual in the genus.

Color in alcohol. First and second femora yellowish ; all other segments of legs a dusky yellowish. Palps light yellowish except the reddish brown tarsi. Chelicerae : basal segment a deep red- dish brown; fang yellowish. Lip a deep reddish brown, lighter along distal border. Maxillae yellowish in medial third and brown elsewhere. Carapace a deep reddish brown, darker along the margins; median region with a narrow dark stripe posteri- orly and widening at the median depression and extending to PLE ; all eyes except AME surrounded by black pigment. Ster- num : a deep reddish brown. Abdomen : nearly white dorsally with a few silvery spangles ; in the posterior third there are very poorly outlined median gray spots with a series of very narrow black transverse lines; a fairly broad gray stripe extends along

6 BREVIORA NO. 68

each lateral side ; the venter is generally white with a little gray around the genital area and spinnerets.

Female allotype. Total length including nearly vertical cheli- cerae 3.12 mm. Carapace 1.28 mm. long; .715 mm. wide opposite second coxae where it is widest ; otherwise essentially as in male.

Eyes. Central ocular quadrangle wider behind than in front in ratio of 5 : 4, wider behind than long in ratio of 5 : 4. Ratio of eyes AME : ALE : PME : PLE = 6 : 4.5 : 5.5 : 5. AME separated from one another by five-sixths of their diameter, from ALE by 1.5 times their diameter. PME separated from one another by slightly more than 1.6 times their diameter, from PLE by the same distance. Laterals separated from one another by the diameter of PLE. AME separated from PME by the diameter of PLE, hence as far from one another as the laterals are from one another. Height of clypeus equal to about tw^o- thirds of the diameter of AME.

Chelicerae. Moderately well developed ; nearly vertical and parallel ; basal segment .454 mm. long and, therefore, about one- third as long as cephalothorax ; fang slender and evenly curved ; promargin of fang groove with four well-developed teeth fairly evenly spaced ; retromargin with four smaller and fairly evenly spaced teeth (delicacy of the specimen makes it difficult to ob- serve teeth accurately).

Maxillae, Lip, and Sternum. Essentially as in male.

Legs. 1243. Width of first patella at "knee" .119 mm., tibial index of first leg 5. Width of fourth patella at "knee" .097 mm., tibial index of fourth leg 7.

Femora Patellae Tibiae Metatarsi Tarsi Totals

(All measurements in millimeters)

1.

2.210

.378

2.015

2.015

.716

7.334

2.

1.625

.330

1.170

1.430

.585

5.140

3.

.845

.200

.520

.550

.396

2.511

4.

1.495

.265

1.105

1.170

.401

4.436

Spines, hairs, and trichobothria essentially as in male.

Abdomen. 1.95 mm. long; broadest near middle where it is .910 mm. wide ; slightly notched at base ; genital area essentially as shown in Figure 5. Otherwise essentially as in male.

1956 TETRAGNATHA IN JAMAICA 7

Color in alcohol. Abdomen : tlorsally the cardiac area is nearly colorless; there are numerous silvery spangles and a vaguely outlined folium; the venter has a central slightly gray- ish stripe with a stripe on each side outlined by silvery spangles. Otherwise essentially as in male.

Type locality. Ilolotype male, allotype female, and three para- type males from Hanover, Askenish, Trail to Dolphin Head, Jamaica, June 24, 1954.

Tetragnatha PAiiLESCENS F. P. Cambridge, 1903

Eugnatha pallcscens Petrunkevitch, 1911 r. pallescens Petrunkevitch, 1930 T. pallescons Bryant, 1940 T. pallescens Bryant, 1945

Collection records: A male and a female from Ocho Rios, January 1929 (W. S. Brooks) ; several of both sexes from St. Catherine, Port Henderson, Salina, November, 1949 (Bengry, Lewis, Wiles) ; both sexes from St. Thomas, Lysson, June, 1954.

Tetragnatha tenuissima O. P. Cambridge, 1889

T. tenuissima Petrunkevitch, 1930 T. tenuissima Bryant, 1940 T. tenuissima Bryant, 1945

Only one specimen, a male, has appeared in the collection available to me; St. Elizabeth, Magotty, May, 1953 (G. R. Proc- tor).

Tetragnatha visenda sp. nov. (Figures 6-9)

3Iale holotype. Total length including chelicerae 8.58 mm. ; without chelicerae total length 7.475 mm. Carapace 2.60 mm. long; 1.495 mm. wide opposite second coxae where it is widest; with the usual general form of the genus ; .66 mm. tall opposite third coxae just anterior to posterior declivity.

Eyes. Eight in two rows as usual ; lateral ocular tubercles only moderately prominent; viewed from above, posterior row mod- erately recurved, anterior row strongly recurved; viewed from

8

BREVIORA

NO. 68

in front, anterior row moderately recurved, posterior row slightly procurved, all measured by centers; central ocular quadrangle wider behind than in front in ratio of 6 : 5, wider behind than long in ratio of 9 : 8. Katio of eyes AME : ALE : PME : PLE = 11 : 5.5 : 8 : 7.5. AME separated from one another by slightly more than their diameter, from ALE by

r

<^\

External Anatomy of Tetragnatha

Fig. 6. T. visenda sp. nov. ; clieliceral teeth of male from below.

Fig. 7. Idem; the prolateral spur of male.

Fig. 8. Idem; the male paracymbium.

Fig. 9. Idem; distal end of male tarsus.

Figs. 10-11. T. versicolor Walck.; distal ends of conductors and emboli

from Cuba and Michigan, respectively. Figs. 12-13. T. parva Bryant ; distal end of male tarsus and paracymbium,

respectively.

nearly twice their diameter. PME separated from one another by 2.5 times their diameter, from PLE by slightly more than this. Laterals separated from one another by slightly more than the diameter of PLE. AME separated from PME by slightly

1956 TETKAGNATHA IN JAMAICA 9

more tlian the diameter of AME, thus are farther from one another than laterals are from one another in ratio of about 12 : 7.5. Height of clypeus equal to a little more than two-thirds the diameter of AME.

Chelicerae. Well developed; moderately porrect; quite diver- gent in distal two-thirds of basal segment ; somewhat swollen in distal half; prolateral spur well developed and clearly bifid with the larger lobe directed inward (Fig. 6); the fang is long, slender, only slightly sinuate; the fang groove has the so-called "large tooth" with eight others on the promargin and eight on the retromargin (Fig. 6).

Maxillae. Slender; considerably divergent in distal halves; a little more than twice as long as lip ; longer than wide in middle in ratio of 4 : 1.

Lip. Only slightly wider at base than long; sternal suture clearly procurved; with the usual sternal tubercles well de- veloped at ends of sternal suture.

Sternum. Only slightly convex; somewhat swollen opposite second coxae ; with the usual general form ; longer than wide in ratio of 12 : 7 ; continued laterally and posteriorly between all coxae ; posterior coxae separated by about one-fourth their width.

Legs. 1243. Width of first patella at "knee" .395 mm., tibial index of first leg 5. Width of fourth patella at "knee" .260 mm., tibial index of fourth leg 6.

Femora Patellae Tibiae Metatarsi Tarsi Totals

(All measurements in millimeters)

1.

6.500

1.105

6.890

7.475

1.560

23.530

2.

4.680

.910

4.225

4.420

.975

15.210

3.

2.340

.550

1.397

1.755

.600

6.642

4.

4.940

.715

3.835

4.420

.845

14.755

Palp

1..560

.370

.520

.850

3.300

Spines. All legs with spines of moderate size and length; a sparse coating of hair is also present. Trichobothria are present on femora and probably other segments of legs but their position has not been accurately observed.

Palp. Tibia and patella both short with tibia longer than patella in ratio of about 3 : 2. The paracj^mbium is rather long

10 BREVIORA NO. 68

and slender with the chitinoiis knob about one-third of length of the structure from base (Fig. 8). The conductor terminates in a characteristic manner best shown in Figure 9.

Abdomen. Slender; only slightly concave at base; widest near middle; 5.07 mm. long and about 1.43 mm. wide in broadest region ; not continued posterior to spinnerets ; other features as usual in the genus.

Color in alcohol. All legs light yellowish brown, lighter below ; first and second somewhat dusky dorsally and dorsolaterally with occasional grayish patches ; third and fourth mostly lacking the dusky coloring and grayish patches. Chelicerae reddish brown, grayish along lateral surfaces. Lip dark brown with yellowish distal border. Maxillae yellowish in medial halves, darker along lateral halves. Carapace reddish brown with darker radiating streaks and an irregular granular border. Sternum reddish brown Avith darker irregularly grouped fine dots. Abdo- men : dorsum light yellowish because of presence of numerous irregular subchitinous yellowish white deposits making this re- gion very granular in appearance ; there are also many short irregular grayish lines which become more longitudinal in posi- tion and prominent along the lateral sides; the venter has a median grayish stripe with a broader granular j^ellowish stripe on each side together with a white spot just lateral to each an- terior spinneret and a smaller white spot just dorsal to the larger one.

Type locality. The male holotype was taken at St. Catherine, Port Henderson, June 20, 1954. One male paratype is in the collection from a house in St. Andrew, August, 1955 (G. R. Proctor).

THE GENUS IN CUBA

Tetragnatha antillana Simon, 1897

There is but one specimen, a male, in the collection in the Museum of Comparative Zoology but the species has been re- corded from several localities.

Tetragnatha caudata Emerton, 1884 Two females are in the collection in the Museum of Compara- tive Zoology, both taken at different times in Soledad gardens.

1956 TETRAGNATHA IN JAMAICA 11

Tetragnatha elongata Walckenaer, 1805

This species is well represented by both sexes in the collection and appears to be the most common of all of the eight species recorded from the island.

Tetragnatha guatemalensis 0. P. Cambridge, 1889

T. banhsi McCook, 1893

T. seneca Seeley, 1928

T. banlcsi Levi and Field, 1954

Drs. Gertsch and Levi have apparently agreed that T. seneca Seeley is the same as T. hanksl MeCook. I have made careful comparisons of the specimens from Cuba identified as T. seneca Seeley with my numerous specimens of T. guatemalensis 0. P. Cambridge from Panama and other parts of Central America with the result that I am convinced that here we have another case of synonymy. The characteristics of eyes, several features of the male palps such as vermiform distal end of the paracym- bium and course and shape of both conductor and embolus to- gether with the general characters of the chelicerae all point toward this conclusion. Some may object that I am taking too much liberty with the cheliceral teeth because the "large tooth" is absent in T. seneca Seeley. This "large tooth" is not well developed in T. guatemalc7isis 0. P. Cambridge and could very well have been reduced to the condition found in T. seneca Seeley. The specimens in the Museum of Comparative Zoology identified as T. ha^iksi McCook also agree well with T. seneca Seeley as concluded by Levi and Field (1954).

Tetragnatha orizaba Banks, 1898

There are several specimens of both sexes from several locali- ties in Cuba. Also recorded from Hispaniola but from no other place in the West Indies so far as know^n to the author of this paper.

Tetragnatha pallescens F. P. Cambridge, 1903

Both sexes are represented in the collection from Havana and Soledad.

Tetragnatha tenuissima 0. P. Cambridge, 1889 Both sexes have been recorded from several localities.

12 BREVIORA NO. 68

Tetragnatha versicolor Walckenaer, 1841

T. extensa Emerton, 1884

T. d&ntigera F. P. Cambridge, 1903

T. extensa Seeley, 1928

The specimens from Soledad identified as T. dentigera F. P. Cambridge are, I believe, correctly recognized. These are espe- cially interesting because of the fact that I have been forced to the conclusion that T. dentigera F. P. Cambridge is a synonym for T. versicolor Walck. I have examined a large number of specimens assigned to the latter species and as many as possible of the former. The cheliceral teeth, several features of the male palps (paracymbium, conductor, embolus) and the eyes all point rather decisively toward the synonymy which I have indicated. The tip of the conductor is like nothing else in the genus so far as I have seen. I have provided a drawing of the tip of the con- ductor from a specimen collected in Cuba and another from a specimen of T. versicolor taken in Michigan. There are slight differences but the basic plan is the same and the differences are well within the normal variation of a species (Figs. 10, 11).

THE GENUS IN HISPANIOLA

Tetragnatha antillana Simon,, 1897

T. festina Bryant, 1945 (male only) T. haitiensis Bryant, 1945 (females)

The males of T. festina Bryant have the bifid paracymbium, other features of the male palpi, eyes, and general cheliceral characters associated with T. antillana Simon. 2\ haitiensis Bryant has the general form, cheliceral characters, and genital area characteristic of females of T. antillana. The small differ- ences noted by Miss Bryant and myself are all, I believe, within the normal variation for a species ranging over a Avide area.

Tetragnatha confraterna Banks, 1909

T. eloufjata Bryant, 1945

One female from Puerta Plata, Dominican Republic, was identified as T. elongata Walck., 1805. I have examined this specimen very carefully and I am convinced that it has been

1956 TETRAGNATHA IN" JAMAICA 13

misidentified. Its slightly extended abdomen, cheliceral char- acters, eyes, and f^enital area seem to place it in the species 7'. confraterna Banks where it is provisionally left.

Tetragnatha ORIZABA Banks, 1898

r. Orizaba Bryant, 1945

The specimens of both sexes from the Dominican Republic seem to agree well with our current understanding of this species.

Tetragnatha pallescens F. P. Cambridge, 1903 r. pallescens Bryant, 1945

Numerous specimens of both sexes from Haiti seem to indicate that this may be the most common species in Hispaniola.

Tetragnatha tenuissima 0. P. Cambridge, 1889

T. tenuissima Bryant, 1945

T. festina Bryant, 1945 (females only)

The cheliceral teeth, eyes, general form, lack of leg spines, and the genital area all indicate that T. festina females belong with T. tenuissima 0. P. Cambridge.

THE GENUS IN PORTO RICO

I have had very little opportunity to study the species of Tetragnatha from Porto Rico. Petrunkevitch (1930) listed the following species from this island : T. antillana Simon ; T. elymiquensis Petrunkevitch; T. lahoriosa Hentz; T. pallescens F. P. Cambridge ; T. piscatoria Simon ; T. suhextensa Petrunke- vitch; T. tenuissima 0. P. Cambridge; T. vicina Simon. There appears to be considerable doubt about the occurrence of T. vicina in Porto Rico. In 1947 Miss Bryant described T. parva from the Luquillo Mountains thus bringing the total number of recorded species in this island to nine. Two figures of the tip of the conductor and closely related structures have been prepared to supplement those provided by the author of the species (Figs. 12,13).

14 BREVIORA NO. 68

THE GENUS IN THE VIRGIN ISLANDS

Very little opportunity has been afforded me to study the spiders of these small islands. I have carefully examined all specimens, however, now in the collection of the Museum of Com- parative Zoology and am prepared to summarize my findings as follows: The vial labelled T. antillana Simon contains specimens belonging to this species but it also contains two females which I am tentatively assigning to T. confraterna Banks. The same vial contains a male palp which I believe was derived from this same species. Perhaps we may at least tentatively regard this species as being in the West Indies. The single male assigned to T. piscatoria Simon is, in my judgment, not this species but a specimen